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Abrasion Resistant Blade

The gate’s blade is manufactured from abrasion resistant steel. The combination of the abrasion resistant blade and liners are important in providing a gate that offers longevity and an exceptional life-cycle cost.

Abrasion Resistant Liners

Inlet liners made from steel or hard polymer address potential wear issues that may exist from either the volume or the abrasiveness of the material being handled.

Abrasive

The abrasiveness of a material is determined by its hardness factor and the shape of its particles. For instance, a material which has a high Mohs hardness factor and has sharp, angular-shaped particles will be considered highly abrasive.

Actuator

Method to supply and transmit a measured amount of energy for the operation to automatically open or close a valve.

Adhesion

Adhering of the material to a surface or particle other than itself.

Adjustable Rollers

Externally greased hardened steel adjustable rollers are used to keep the blade dust tight.

Adjustable Variable Position

Actuator switch for adjustable open or closed positions for each magnetic reed switch.

Aeration

The action of introducing air or gas to a bulk material by any means. Aeration may cause the material to become fluidized or agitated.

Agglomerate

An accumulated cluster of many particles that are rigidly bonded together by inter-particle forces, partial fusion, sintering or by growing together, such that they act as a single, larger particle.

Airlock

Rotary vane valve which prevents air or gas from entering or existing a dust collector or other device where a pressure differential exists, yet allows product to transfer continously.

Also known as:
Rotary Valve
Angle Of Repose

The angle formed between the horizontal and sloping surface of a piled material, which has been allowed to form naturally without any conditioning.

ANSI Flange

Flange with holes measured accordingly to the American National Standards Institute.  Used primarily in the USA.

Bag Dump

Bin or container to manually dump dry bulk material that are usually stored in bags, buckets, or totes, and are dumped into a bulk material processing equipment further down into the system.

Bed

An assembly of particles in a contained state.

Bin

A small or medium-sized bulk container with one or more outlets for withdrawal, either by gravity alone or by flow-promoting devices that assist gravity. May be mobile or transportable.

Blender

Device in which all ingredients are loaded into and gently agitated until they are homogenously mixed.

Also known as:
Mixer
Agitator
Blending

Mixing together different materials in a prescribed ratio at a scale of scrutiny that is significant to the application by way of low energy mechanisms.

Also known as:
Mixing
Homogenous
Bonnet Purge

An optional component to keep material out of the body of the valve and in the material stream.

Bulk

A mass of particles.

Bulk Bag

Used to store and transport dry, flowable materials in powder, flake, or granule form.

Also known as:
FIBC
Sack
Tote
IBC
Bulk Density

Weight-to-volume ratio. Usually expressed in terms of pounds of material per cubic foot, kilograms per meter, grams per liter, or grams per cubic centimeter.

Bulk Material

Granular or lumpy mixture existing in a free-flowing form.

Also known as:
Bulk Solids
Dry Bulk
Bulk Solids

Loose, dry commodities such as sugar, starch, minerals, chemicals, pigments, filllers, plastic resin and recycled plastics.

Also known as:
Bulk Material
Dry Bulk
Bull Nose Gate

Gate designed for gas or liquid applications that cut through the supply of fluid.

Also known as:
Knife Gate
Bunker

Generic term for a fixed container for bulk storage. Typically of shallow construction with a large, open top.

Butterfly Valve

Valve using a disc as a flap hinged in the middle to open and close the flow of material.

Chute

Means of collecting or directing material stream, which, unlike a hopper, does not operate full.

Coalescence

The joining together of fluids originally separated by boundaries.

Cohesiveness

The tendency of a material to adhere to itself. The cohesiveness of a bulk solid material can be caused by many factors including electrostatic charging, surface tension effects, and interlocking of certain particle shapes, particularly fibrous types of materials.

Component

A part or element of a larger whole system.

Controller

Device or group of devices for starting, stopping, accelerating, or decelerating a drive.

Conveyor

A device that is operated by a drive that pushes dry bulk material through the material handling system.

Corrosiveness

Some materials have chemical properties which will, when combined with other materials such as moisture and air, cause chemical deterioration to materials of construction.

Crusher

Machine designed to reduce large pieces into smaller pieces.

Also known as:
Pulverizer
Grinder
Hammermill
Cyclone

A device that pneumatically separates solids from air quickly with no moving parts. Used with a dust collector to reduce the burden on the dust collection system.

Day Bin

Bin used as a temporary storage for materials in a gravity or pneumatic system

Also known as:
Tote
Dense Phase

Material is conveyed slowly by means of low compressed air but at higher pressure through the conveying pipe. This is used for bigger granular particles such as balls, dunes and plugs.

Density

The mass per unit volume of a material under specified conditions of pressure.

Dessicant

Drying agent consisting of a soluble or insoluble chemical substance that draws water from most materials.

Dilute/Lean Phase

Material is conveyed by means of comparitively large air volumes and low pressures at high air velocities.

DIN Flange

Flange with holes measured accordingly to the Deutsches Institut für Normung.  Used primarily in Europe.

Displacement End Pocket

Extra area that displaces the material at the leading edge of the blade as the blade closes. Rather than the blade jamming and packing this material into an end seal, the blade stops part way into the pocket. Material falls away from the blade and re-enters the material flow stream area.

Diverter Valve

A valve that converges 2, or more, lines of material into 1.  Or separates 1 line of material into several.

Dry Bulk

A category of cargo stowed in bulk, consisting of grain, cotton, coal, etc.

Also known as:
Bulk Material
Bulk Solids
Dust

A particulate material that can be airborne and would pass through a 75 μm sieve such as carbon black, tobacco smoke, paint pigments, insecticides, molled flour, coal dust and fly ash.

Dust Collector

Air-cleaning device used to remove particulate loadings from exhaust systems.

Electric

Convey particles by driving a motor.

Explosiveness

In certain conditions, some bulk materials can form potentially explosive mixtures when combined with air. These conditions depend on (a) the nature of the material itself, which would include its ignition temperature, its chemical reaction with oxygen, its particle size distribution; and (b) the nature of the operation involving the material.

Extrusion

The formation of cylindrical agglomerates by forcing a plastic mass through a perforated die, then cutting the extruded material or allowing it to break off.

Feed Rate

The actual amount of material discharged per unit of time (i.e. lbs/hr or tons/hr).

Feeder

A device used to discharge a bulk storage container in an accurately measured and controlled manner.

FIBC

A Flexible Intermediate Bulk Container

Also known as:
Bulk Bag
Sack
Tote
IBC
Fill Weight

Mass of powder in a container of stated dimensions, when this had been filled under stated conditions.

Filter

A pourous device for removing impurities or solid particles from a flow of material.

Flex Connection

Pliable sleeve that joins two pieced of equipment within a system.

Also known as:
Sleeve
Flowability

Flowability is the ease with which a bulk material flows under the influence of gravity only.

Fluidization

Using air or inert gas to fully aerate a fine bulk solid to allow it to behave as a liquid.

Frequency

The number of cyclic occurrences in a given period. Usually expressed in cycles per second (CPS), cycles per minute (CPM,) or revolutions per minute (RPM).

Friable

A material that is easily crumbled or pulverized.

Gain-In-Weight Feeding

Gravimetric method of controlling material flow by sensing weight gain to achieve desired feed rate.

Gate

A device that stops the flow of material.

Gauge

Metal manufacturer's standard measure of thickness for sheet stock.

Granular

A mass of particles of such size that the individual particles can be visibly discerned.

Gravel

Mineral particles greater in size than 2000 microns.

Gravimetric Feeding

Feeding material by weight at some required rate.

Gravity Flow

Material flow that is measured by weight, not volume.

Grinder

A machine used for grinding large particles into smaller particles.

Also known as:
Pulverizer
Hammermill
Crusher
Hammermill

Impact mill consisting of hammer blades to crush or grind particles into smaller sizes.

Also known as:
Crusher
Grinder
Pulverizer
Heat Exchanger

Device used to transfer heat between one or more fluids.

HEPA Filter

High Efficiency Particulate Air filter, for particles in air, having a specified minimum collection efficiency to the DOP test.

Heterogeneous

A mass of non-similar particles that are unevenly distributed in the bulk.

Homogenous

A mass of non-uniform particles that are uniformly diffused in the bulk.

Hopper

Funnel-shaped chamber or bin in which loose material is stored temporarily, being filled through the top and dispense through the bottom.

Also known as:
Bin
Tote
FIBC
IBC
Hydraulic

Convey particles by a liquid pump.

Hygroscopic

The tendency to absorb moisture from the atmosphere.

I/O

Input/Output

IBC

Intermediate Bulk Container

Also known as:
Bin
Tote
FIBC
Hopper
Infinite Variable Position

Actuator switch to control infinite open or infinite closed.

Iris Valve

Circular opening that opens and closes much like an eye iris.

Isotropic

Non-uniform particles that are not preferentially oriented in the mass.

Knife Gate

Valve used to cut through thick material such as pulp, oil, wastewater, or slurry.

Also known as:
Bull nose gate
Loading Spout

Telescopic chute used to load dry, dusty bulk solids into tankers, ships, or vessels.

Also known as:
Loading Bellow
Loading Chute
Loss-In-Weight Feeding

Gravimetric method of controlling material flow by sensing weight loss to achieve desired feed rate.

Magnetic Reed Switch

Electric switch operated by an applied magnetic field.

Major Ingredient

Material forming the larger part of the total formula.

Material Deflector

Add-on component placed around the inlet of the valve and protect it from the  material flow stream.  Reduces wear and  downtime keeping the valve in service longer.

Also known as:
Deflector Cone
Special Service Inlet
Material To Air Ratio

The ratio of the mass of material conveyed to mass of conveying as used.

Material Handling

The movement of materials over a short-distance within the confines of a building or between a building and a transportation vehicle. It utilizes a wide range of manual and automated equipment for the protection, storage, and control of materials throughout the manufacturing, warehousing, distribution, consumption, and disposal.

Maximum Particle Size

Maximum dimension of the particle in inches or millimeters.

Medium Particle Size

The middle-point of the particle size distribution.

Metering

Measuring an intermittent or uncontrollable material flow's total weight; used for monitoring material inventory or slaving other process equipment.

Minor Ingredient

Material forming a small part of the total formula.

Mixer

Device where all ingredients are loaded into and blended until they are homogeneously distributed.

Also known as:
Blending
Homogenous
Mohs Scale

A scale that gives a comparative order of hardness by expressing it of hardness in terms of the ability of one material to scratch another, without itself being affected. A set of reference materials is listed with which others may be compared.

Orifice Gate

Valve used to close off the flow of dry bulk material.

Also known as:
Slide Gate
Particle Density

The mass of a particle divided by its volume. For a bulk material, average particle density is found by dividing the mass of the material by its volume.

Particle Shape

The shape and form of the particles of a bulk material.

Pellet

An agglomerate of particles produced by specialized techniques, such as pressing.

Permeability

The degree to which air or other gas may be passed through the void spaces between the particles of the material.

Pipe Size

Pipe is used for abrasive materials or for dense phase conveying systems. Pipe can also be made from stainless steel, carbon steel, or aluminum. Pipe size is determined by measuring the inner diameter of the pipe.

Pneumatic

Convey particles by air pressure.

Pneumatic Conveying

Material is conveyed in an enclosed tube system by means of compressed air or by means of a vacuum.

Also known as:
Pressure Conveying
Powder

A mass of particles of such size that individual particles cannot be visually discerned in the bulk.

Pulverizer

A device for grinding many different large sizes of material into fine dust.

Also known as:
Crusher
Grinder
Hammermill
Return Pan

Fabricated piece added onto a slide gate to seal fine material internally or to atmosphere. With this feature, material that enters the bonnet of the valve is returned to the material flow stream, thus reducing material leakage to atmosphere.

Roller Gate

A slide gate that the blade is conveyed by rollers seated into the frame.

Rotary Valve

Valve used to meter, feed, and discharge fine-grained or powdered materials.  Usually installed under silos and hoppers to handle pressure differentials between the silo pressure and the pressure of downstream conveying equipment.

Also known as:
Airlock
Sample

A representative portion of a bulk material. Material may be sampled manually by putting a cup or scoop into a material stream. This sample then can be tested.

Screener

Device that separates solid particles according to size by vibrating layered screens in descending hole sizes.

Also known as:
Sifter
Seals

Used to reduce valve dusting.

Separator

Device that separates something into two or more distinct elements.

Sequence

Time delays in starting and stopping to coordinate processing operations so they'll meet material transport time requirements.

Setpoint

Feedrate the machine is trying to achieve.

Sifter

Large particles or foreign materials is removed from the product stream through vibration, rotation, or gyration.  These objects are removed from the product line through a discharge spout while sifted product continues on into the powder handling system.

Also known as:
Screener
Silo

Used to store large volumes for extended periods of time. May be built constructed of metal or concrete.

Also known as:
Tank
Slide Gate

Valve used to shut off dry material flow.

Also known as:
Orifice Gate
Sludge

A mass of particles mixed with a liquid that completely saturates the interstitial void space between the particles.

Also known as:
Slurry
Slurry

A mass of particles mixed with a liquid that fills the interstitial void space to excess, such that the particles are unable to develop shear strength.

Also known as:
Sludge
Solenoid

Electromagnetic device used to remotely or automatically supply switching, actuation, or adjustment movement to a secondary device.

Special Service Inlet

Inexpensive deflector added to a slide gate to extend the service life of the gate.  Can be easily, and cheaply replaced as needed.

Also known as:
Deflector Cone
Material Deflector
System

Set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex whole.

Tank

Large receptacle or storage chamber.

Also known as:
Silo
Tolerance

The machine's specified performance limits.

Tote

Smaller, more versatile container to store dry bulk material.

Also known as:
Bin
IBC
FIBC
Tube Size

Tube is used for powders, pellets, and granules, or in a dilute phase conveying system. The tube can be made from stainless steel, carbon steel, or aluminum.  Tube size id determined by measuring the outside diameter of the tube.

Two-Phase Flow

All bulk solid materials peumatic conveying systems operate on a 2-phase flow principle: a solid phase (the material being conveyed) and a gas phase (the conveying gas).

Vacuum Conveying

Material are drawn to the delivery point through a totally enclosed pipeline by air generated by a vacuum blower.

Valve

Any device used to stop, start, increase, or decrease the flow of material.

Variable Closed Position

Actuator switch that is adjustable close for each pneumatic trip switch.

Variable Open Position

Actuator switch that is adjustable open for each pneumatic trip switch.

Viscosity

The characteristic of all fluids to resist flow.

Volume

A particle's bulk or mass.

Volumetric Feeding

Feeding material by volume at some required rate.

Wear Resistant Bucket

Bucket constructed from durable abrasion resistant steel or ceramic. For even more durability, the additional of an optional honeycomb liner allows material to abrade on itself instead of the bucket.

Also known as:
Abrasion Resistant Bucket
Honeycomb Bucket

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